Gendered Impacts of Globalization: Employment and Social Protection

Globalization has led to increases in female labour force participation, reducing the gap between women’s and men’s labour force participation rates. However this increase has not necessarily translated into gender equality in pay and status, as women’s entrance in the labour force has often been on unfavourable terms. This brief draws on a review of existing literature conducted by UNRISD in 2012.

This brief focuses on four sets of issues.
1. How globalization has affected the female labour force.
2. Constraints to improving labour market outcomes for women.
3. How social protection affects women’s living standards and economic security under conditions
of globalization.
4. The policy and programme implications.

From: UNRISD Research and Policy Brief 13,


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